MILITARY AWARDS OF 1817

  While service records of Spanish officers are plentiful for all periods of Spanish occupation, next to nothing is known of the career of the ordinary soldier. The 1817 reports concerning military awards are without a doubt the major source of knowledge of enlisted presidials on the frontier. A total of 122 enlisted men from the frontier of Spanish Sonora were included: four from the Pima company at Tubac, thirty-two from the Altar presidio, nineteen from the Tucson presidio, thirteen from the Opata company at Bavispe, thirty-seven from the Fronteras presidio, and thirty from the presidio at Santa Cruz.

The system of awards was the result of Spain's defeat in the Seven Years War, a defeat which led Charles III to effect a drastic reform of the Spanish military system. In October of 1766 he issued a number of decrees granting privileges and awards to members of the regular army in Spain and in the colonies. After fifteen years of service an enlisted man was entitled to an increase of six reales in his monthly salary. After twenty years the extra pay was raised to nine reales. On completion of twenty-five years, he was entitled to retirement with the grade of sergeant and a monthly pension of ninety reales.

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When the New Royal Regulations for Presidios came out in 1772, there were no length-of-service awards stipulated for soldiers who enlisted in the presidios. This accounts for the lack of detailed service records for enlisted presidials during years preceding the War for Mexican Independence. With the advent of that war, presidials in effect joined the regular army and were entitled to enjoy the length-of-service bonus. Due to the precarious loyalty of his troops under ideological pressure, Ferdinand VII increased military privileges on April 20, 1815, declaring that actual time in fighting the Insurgents should be counted as double for bonus and retirement.

A study of these detailed service records explodes a popular but unfavorable tradition. Lieutenant R. W. H. Hardy, a British naval officer, on his visit to Hermosillo in 1826, was told that the farther removed frontier posts, such as Tucson, were staffed with convicted criminals and undesirables from the interior. This was certainly not true of veteran presidia! families. None of the Tucson veterans named in the 1817 awards had a civilian criminal record. Two of the records published here were chosen because of time spent in the guardhouse for interesting activities. None of the other veterans had spent any considerable time in the guardhouse. Even deserting soldiers had returned before severe penalties applied. Such short desertions were not uncommon then, nor are they today. It is also interesting to note that nearly all of the 122 award winners were born on or near the frontier. They could hardly be classed as undesirables from the interior.

Physical descriptions are also revealing. As late as the 1840s, an old wives' tale was circulating in central Sonora that there were no "white inhabitants" in Tucson. Black and brown are beautiful but, for the record, a number of the Tucson award winners whose enlistment records are translated here are described as light complexioned with hair to match. The popular tradition that Spanish soldiers tended to be short of stature is indeed borne out by the records, obviously with some exceptions. The veterans of this study ranged as a rule between five and five and a half feet in height. The Spanish army was measuring with feet and inches at this time, a measurement not usually associated with Mediterranean countries and Latin America, either then or now.

Because of the length and number of these 122 service records, only a very small cross section can be published here.

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REPORT ON THE PERSONNEL OF THIS PIMA COMPANY OF SAN RAFAEL DE BUENAVISTA AT TUBAC WHO HAVE FUL FILLED THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE ROYAL DECREES OF OCTOBER 4, 1766, CONCERNING A BONUS FOR LENGTH AND CONSTANCY OF SERVICE, AND OF APRIL 20, 1815, CONCERNING TIME SPENT IN FIGHTING THE INSURGENTS.

Simón Castro

Enlistment: Simón Castro of the Pima nation - heretofore employed in agriculture at Tumacócori - born at Tumacócori in 1783 - parents Juan and María—religion Roman Catholic - height 5' 1"—black hair - brown eyes —wide nose - round face - two scars on right side of nose —dark complexion no beard - enlisted voluntarily for ten years in this company beginning today, November 7, 1803, and signed with a cross before witnesses Ensign Don Santiago Salazar and Sergeant Francisco Bermudez, both of the Pima nation.

Tubac. November 7, 1803.
ILDEFONSO BERNAL

Notes:

Simón Castro has engaged in seven campaigns against the Apaches.

He left Tubac to fight Miguel Hidalgo's Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario and the southern frontier of Spanish Sonora on February 7, 1811, and returned on June 12, 1816. According to the royal decree of April 20, 1815, announced by Bernardo de Bonavía, commander general of these northern provinces, on January 4, 1817, and communicated to these presidios by Simón Elias González, adjutant inspector at Arizpe, on January 25, 1817, this

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time spent in fighting the Insurgents will count as double for length of service bonus and retirement.

Tubac. December 31, 1817.
JUAN ALEJO CARRILLO
Ensign of Tucson and commander at Tubac

REPORT ON PERSONNEL OF THE ROYAL PRESIDIO OF SANTA GERTRUDIS AT ALTAR WHO HAVE FULFILLED THE REOUIREMENTS OF THE ROYAL DECREES OF OCTOBER 4, 1766, CONCERNING A BONUS FOR LENGTHAND CONSTANCY OF SERVICE, AND OF APRIL 20, 1815, CONCERNING TIME SPENT IN FIGHTING THE INSURGENTS.

José Dolores Loroña

Enlistment: José Dolores Loroña - heretofore employed as a weaver of cloth here in Altar - born in Altar in 1782 —parents Manuel Loroña and María Santos Mendoza - religion Roman Catholic - height 5' 1" - black hair and eyebrows - dark eyes - regular nose - close shaven— ruddy complexion enlisted voluntarily for ten years in this company beginning today, May 1, 1800, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Juan Coronado and Juan Ignacio Vásquez, both soldiers of this company.

Altar. May 1, 1800.
JOSE SAENZ RICO

Notes:

José Dolores Loroña engaged in eight campaigns against the Apaches between 1800 and 1808.

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He has merited an additional monthly pay of six reales since May 1, 1815, for length and constancy of service.

He left Altar to fight the Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario and the southern frontier of Spanish Sonora on December 12, 1810, and returned on February 9, 1817. This time counts as double for his length of service bonus and retirement.

Altar. June 1, 1817.
BENITO ESPINOSA

Corporal Salvador Moraga

Enlistment: Salvador Moraga - heretofore employed as a farmer here in Altar - born in Altar in 1776 - parents Don Ignacio Moraga, retired captain of this presidio, and Dona Barbara Arvizu - religion Roman Catholic— height 5' 1" - dark brown hair and eyebrows - dark eyes —regular nose - light complexion - scarred by smallpox with three moles on his chin no beard - round face— enlisted voluntarily for ten years in this company on September 1, 1797, and signed his name before the witnesses Carbineer Xavier Orozco and José Robledo, both of this company.

Altar. September 1, 1797.
SALVADOR MORAGA
JOSE SAENZ RICO

Notes:

Salvador Moraga received a lance wound between his shoulder blade and his ribs in a battle with the Seris on April 23, 1799.

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He was promoted to carbineer on October 16, 1807.

Before the end of December, 1812, he had engaged in six full campaigns and nine lighter skirmishes against the Seris and Apaches.

Since 1804 he has taken regular courses in military surgery at the royal military hospital in Arizpe with dedicated application.

He has merited an additional monthly pay of six reales since September 1, 1812, for length and constancy of service.

He was promoted to first corporal of this company on January 16, 1816.

He left Altar to fight the Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario and the southern frontier of Spanish Sonora on September 18, 1811, where he is still assigned. This time counts as double for his length of service bonus and retirement.

Altar. July 1, 1817.
BENITO ESPINOSA

Carbineer Francisco Redondo

Enlistment: Francisco Redondo - heretofore employed as a farmer here in Altar - born in Altar in 1776 - parents Hilario Redondo and María Gertrudis Gutiérrez- religion Roman Catholic - height 5' 1" red hair and eyebrows - dark eyes - ruddy complexion - regular nose no beard - enlisted voluntarily for ten years in this company on January 29, 1794, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Francisco Bonilla and Juan Orozco, both soldiers of this company.

Altar. January 29, 1794.
JOSE SAENZ RICO

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Notes:

Francisco Redondo enlisted for five more years beginning February 1, 1808.

By March 15, 1807, he had engaged in twelve full campaigns and ten lighter skirmishes against the Seris and Apaches.

By September of 1809 he had engaged in two more campaigns.

He has merited an additional monthly pay of six reales since January 1, 1811.

He was promoted to carbineer on August 1, 1814.

He has merited an additional monthly pay of nine reales since January 29, 1814.

He left Altar to fight the Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario and the southern frontier of Spanish Sonora on December 12, 1810, and returned on January 19, 1816. This time counts as double for his length of service bonus and retirement.

Altar. June 1, 1817.
BENITO ESPINOSA

REPORT ON PERSONNEL OF THE ROYAL PRESIDIO OF SAN AGUSTIN AT TUCSON WHO HAVE FULFILLED THE REQUTREMENTS OF THE ROYAL DECREES OF OCTOBER 4, 1766, CONCERNING A BONUS FOR LENGTH AND CONSTANCY OF SERVICE, AND OF APRIL 20, 1815, CONCERNING TIME SPENT IN FIGHTING THE INSURGENTS.

lldefonso Bojórquez

Enlistment: Ildefonso Bojórquez - heretofore an unemployed resident of Tucson - born in the presidio at Pitic

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in 1786 - parents Ignacio Bojórquez and Loreta Preciado - religion Roman Catholic - light brown hair - dark eyes - large nose - round face - light ruddy complexion —enlisted voluntarily as drummer boy to serve for ten years at this Tucson presidio beginning today, September 1, 1800, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Sergeant Juan Antonio Oliva and Salvador Gallegos, both soldiers of this company.

Tucson. September 1, 1800.

Notes:

Ildefonso Bojórquez has merited an additional monthly pay of six reales since September 1, 1815, for length and constancy of service.

He left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario and the southern frontier of Spanish Sonora on January 23, 1811, where he is still assigned. This time counts as double for his length of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. December 31, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

José Miguel Burrola

Enlistment: José Miguel Burrola - heretofore employed as a laborer here in Nacámeri - born here in Sonora in 1772 - parents Antonio Burrola and Vicenta Granillo - religion Roman Catholic height 5' 1" - black hair— dark eyes - ruddy complexion - sharp nose - scar on right leg - enlisted voluntarily during recruiting mission here at Nacámeri to serve for ten years at the Tucson presidio beginning today, July 4, 1797, and signed with a cross

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before the witnesses José Domingo Granillo, recruiting sergeant, and Luis Moreno, both soldiers of the Tucson presidio.

Nacámeri. July 4, 1797.
JOSE CONSTANTINO ROBLES
Justice of the Peace

Notes:

José Miguel Burrola reenlisted for five more years on March 7, 1808, and took the customary leave of two months at that time, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, acting commandant of the Tucson presidio at that time, and Antonio García de Tejada, adjutant inspector.

He served under Alejo García Conde in the famed battle of Piaxtla29 on February 8, 1811, against the Insurgent army of 7500 men under the self-styled colonel Hermosillo. The Insurgent army was routed, lost all of its artillery and baggage, and left 600 dead on the field. Burrola's service is attested to by Alejo García Conde himself, commander general of the northern provinces at that time.

By July 1, 1812, he had engaged in twenty full campaigns and twenty-five briefer missions against the Apaches, with a total of 275 Apaches dead or captured.

He has merited an additional monthly pay of six reales since July 4, 1812, for length and constancy of service.

He left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on January 23, 1811, and he is still assigned to that mission. This time counts as double for his length of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. December 31, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

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Thumbnail of Soldado de Cuera & Link to Full Image [25 Kb]
ILLUSTRATION: SOLDADO DE CUERA

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Juan María Castro

Enlistment: Juan María Castro - heretofore employed as a farmer here in Tucson - born here in Tucson in 1779 - parents Cayetano Castro and María Gauna - religion Roman Catholic height 5' 2"—black hair - big dark eyes - wide face - thick lips mole between eyebrows - scar on tip of nose - enlisted voluntarily to serve ten years in the Tucson company beginning today, January 1, 1798, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Corporal Bautista Romero and Cadet Simón Elias González, both of this company.

Tucson. January 1, 1798.
SIMON ELIAS GONZALEZ

Notes:

Juan María Castro reenlisted for five more years in this company on March 7, 1809, and took the customary leave of two months, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, acting commandant of the Tucson presidio at that time, and Antonio García de Tejada, adjutant inspector.

He served under Alejo García Conde in the famed battle of Piaxtla.... His service is attested to by Alejo García Conde himself, commander general of the northern provinces at that time.

By the end of 1811 he had engaged in sixteen campaigns with a total of 150 Apaches killed or captured.

He has enjoyed an additional monthly salary of six reales since January 1, 1813, for length and constancy of service, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time.

He left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on the southern frontier of the province on November 23, 1810, where

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he is still assigned. This time counts as double for length of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. December 31, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

Sergeant Salvador Gallegos

Enlistment: Salvador Gallegos - heretofore an unemployed resident of Tucson - born in the presidio at Tucson in 1780 parents Juan Gallegos and María del Rosario - religion Roman Catholic - height 5' 2" - red hair - black eyebrows - dark eyes large nose - no beard ruddy complexion - enlisted as drummer boy to serve for ten years at this Tucson presidio beginning today, October 16, 1792, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Sergeant Usárraga and Vicente Rodríguez, both of this company.

Tucson. October 16, 1792.
AGUSTIN MARQUEZ

Notes:

Salvador Gallegos became a soldier on September 1, 1800, as attested to by Sergeant Francisco Usárraga.

By December 18, 1809, he had engaged in seven full campaigns and seven briefer missions, with a total of forty Apaches killed or captured and eighty-two horses recovered, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commandant of the Tucson presidio at that time.

He has enjoyed an additional monthly salary of six reales since January 1, 1811, for length and constancy of service, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, acting commandant of the Tucson presidio at that time.

He was promoted to carbineer on December 18,

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1810, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, acting commander of Tucson at the time.

By decree of the commander general of October 6, 1812, he was promoted to the grade of sergeant in reward for his outstanding service in the battle of Rancho San Antonio against 200 Insurgents on September 16, 1812.

He has enjoyed an additional monthly salary of nine reales since October 16, 1812, for length and constancy of service, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, acting commander of Tucson at the time.

He has occupied the position of first corporal of this company beginning September 12, 1813, by order of the commander general issued on that date.

He left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on the southern frontier of the province on January 23, 1811, and returned on June 10, 1817. This time counts as double for his length of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. July 1, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

José Antonio Granillo

Enlistment: José Antonio Granillo - heretofore occupied in farming here at Tucson - born here in Tucson in 1778 —parents Sergeant José Domingo Granillo and Dolores Meza - religion Roman Catholic - height 5' 3" - black hair - dark eyes - light complexion - black eyebrows— round face, close-shaven—enlisted voluntarily to serve for ten years at this Tucson presidio beginning today, January 1, 1798, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Corporal Bautista Romero and Cadet Simón Elias González, both of this company.

Tucson. January 1, 1798
SIMON ELIAS GONZALEZ

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Notes:

José Antonio Granillo enlisted for another five years on March 7, 1809, and took the customary leave of two months, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time, and Antonio García de Tejada, adjutant inspector.

He served under Colonel Alejo García Conde in the battle of Piaxtla.... His service there is attested to by Alejo García Conde himself, commander general of the northern provinces at the time.

To date he has engaged in eighteen campaigns against the Apaches with a total of 195 Apaches killed or captured.

He has enjoyed an additional monthly salary of six reales since January 1, 1813, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time.

From February 20 until April 26, 1816, he took part in a campaign led by Corporal Francisco Romero. Granillo went on four patrols and killed two Apache warriors, as attested to by Corporal Romero.

He left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario and the southern frontier of Spanish Sonora on November 23, 1810, and returned on October 19, 1813. This time will count as double for his length of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. July 1, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

Carbineer José Gregorio Martínez

Enlistment: José Gregorio Martínez - heretofore occu- pied as a laborer at San Xavier where he resides30 - born at the former presidio of Tubac in 1768 - parents Isidro

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Martínez and Antonia Granillo - religion Roman Catholic married - height 5' 2" - dark complexion - large nose - light beard - enlisted voluntarily to serve for ten years in the Tucson company beginning today, August 11, 1792, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Corporal José Chamorro and José María González, both soldiers of this company.

Tucson. August 11, 1792.
JOSE DE ZUNIGA

Notes:

José Gregorio Martínez has engaged in twenty campaigns against the Apaches with a total of 315 Apaches killed and captured.

He served under Colonel Alejo García Conde in the battle of Piaxtla.... His service there is attested to by Alejo García Conde himself, commander general of the northern provinces at the time.

He enjoyed an additional monthly salary of six reales from January 1, 1811, until October 1, 1815, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson on the latter date.

He was promoted to carbineer on August 11, 1814, as attested to by Manuel de León, commander of Tucson at the time.

He left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on the southern frontier of the province on November 23, 1810, and returned on June 10, 1816. This time counts as double for his length of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. July 1, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

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José Bernardino Mesa

Enlistment: José Bernardino Mesa - heretofore occupied in agriculture and stockraising at this presidio - born in Tucson in 1779 - parents Hermenegildo Mesa and Timotea Castro religion Roman Catholic - height 5' 2" - black hair and eyes -dark complexion - aquiline face —regular nose - small pockmark on left cheek - enlisted voluntarily to serve for ten years in this company beginning today, July 27, 1797, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Felipe Estrada and José Castro, soldiers of this company.

Tucson. July 27, 1797.
JOSE DE ZUNIGA

Notes:

José Bernardino Mesa reenlisted for five more years on August 1, 1808, before the witnesses Sergeant Bautista Romero and Guillermo Saenz, both of this company, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time. He took the customary leave of two months.

He served under Colonel Alejo García Conde in the battle of Piaxtla.... His service there is attested to by Alejo García Conde, commander general of the northern provinces at the time.

By the end of 1811 he had engaged in eighteen campaigns against the Apaches and Navajos with a total of 325 of the enemy killed or captured, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time.

He has enjoyed an additional monthly salary of six reales since July 27, 1812, for length of service, by order of the commander general issued on February 3, 1813, and attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time.

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On September 25, 1813, he deserted on the march to Culiacán, attested to by Captain José Laredo, commander of the second division at Culiacán. On September 29 he presented himself to Laredo at El Rosario, as attested to by Laredo's official letter of October 23.31 A royal decree of December 3, 1804, states that deserters who present themselves within eight days after deserting are still entitled to the awards for length and constancy of service.

He left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario and the southern frontier of Spanish Sonora on November 23, 1811 [1810?] where he is still assigned. This time counts as double for his length and constancy of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. December 31, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

Corporal Antonio Ramárez

Enlistment: Antonio Ramárez - heretofore employed as a laborer here in Tucson - born at San Ignacio in 1784 - parents Juan José Ramárez and Manuela Sosa - religion Roman Catholic height 5' 2" - brown hair - blue eyes - light complexion - heavy eyebrows - scar on right arm - enlisted voluntarily to serve for ten years with this company on January 1, 1803, and signed his name before the witnesses Sergeant Domingo Granillo and Carbineer Luis Moreno, both of this company.

Tucson. January 1, 1803.
ANTONIO RAMIREZ
JOSE DE ZUNIGA

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Notes:

Antonio Ramárez was promoted to the position of first corporal of this company on July 1, 1816, by order of the commander general issued on June 4, 1816.

He left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario and the southern frontier of Spanish Sonora on January 23, 1811, where he is still assigned. This time counts as double for his length and constancy of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. December 31, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

Sergeant José Loreto Ramárez

Enlistment: José Loreto Ramárez - heretofore occupied in agriculture and stockraising at this presidio - born at San Ignacio in 1779 - parents Juan José Ramárez and Manuela Sosa - religion Roman Catholic - height 5' 3" - dark hair and eyebrows - beady eyes - light complexion - round face, pockmarked - regular nose - enlisted voluntarily to serve for ten years with this company beginning today, September 15, 1797, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Juan de Diós Nuñez and Francisco Barrios, both of this company.

Tucson. September 15, 1797.
JOSE DE ZUNIGA

Notes:

José Loreto Ramárez was promoted to carbineer on April 1, 1805, as attested to by an officer named Palacios who was in command of the presidio on that day.

He was promoted to corporal on September 15, 1809,

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as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time.

In February of 1812 he killed an Apache warrior during a patrol led by Lieutenant Manuel de León, attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time.

By the end of 1812 he had engaged in twenty full campaigns and twelve briefer missions against Apaches and Navajos with a total of 325 of the enemy killed or captured.

He has enjoyed an additional monthly pay of six reales since September 16, 1812, by order of the commander general issued on February 3, 1813.

On one occasion he commanded a detachment of ten soldiers on a mission to follow Apaches who had raided Tucson. He killed an Apache warrior and recovered the stolen horses.

On another occasion he commanded a detachment of five soldiers on a mission of the same nature and he recovered forty-three horses from the enemy. Both of these incidents were attested to by Lieutenant Manuel de León, who commanded the presidio at the time.

He was promoted to sergeant on June 6, 1816, by order of the commander general, Bernardo Bonavía.

I myself sent him on a mission to seek peace with the Pinal Apaches. The mission was successful.

Tucson. December 31, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

Sergeant Juan Rodríguez

Enlistment: Juan Rodríguez - heretofore occupied in agriculture and stockraising at this presidio - born in the

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mining settlement of San Xavier in southeastern Sonora in 1784 and lived for a time at the presidio of Pitic - parents Miguel Rodríguez and Juana Benitez - religion Roman Catholic - height 5' 2" - red hair - dark eyes - light complexion - red eyebrows regular nose - mole on left ear - scar on forehead between eyebrows - enlisted voluntarily to serve for ten years with this company beginning today, July 27, 1804, and signed with a cross before the witnesses Sergeant Joaquin Verdugo and Carbineer José Alegría, both of this company.

Tucson. July 27, 1804.

Notes:

Juan Rodríguez was promoted to the grade of sergeant on October 6, 1812, by order of the commander general.

He engaged in seven campaigns against the Insurgents on the coast of El Rosario with a total of 150 Insurgents of both sexes killed or captured. Many horses also were captured. Rodríguez personally killed two Insurgents with his sword. This is attested to by myself, since I also took part in those campaigns.

He spent seven months in the guardhouse here for insulting a corporal of this Tucson company. In light of the royal indult of September 2, 1814, he was set free on April 16, 1815, by Ignacio Sotelo, who commanded Tucson at the time.

The same commander punished Rodríguez with eight straight days of sentry duty for striking a married woman.

Rodríguez left Tucson to fight the Insurgents on the southern frontier of the province on January 23, 1811, and returned on October 19, 1813. This time counts as

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double for his length and constancy of service bonus and retirement.

Tucson. July 1, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

Mariano Rodríguez

Enlistment: Mariano Rodríguez - heretofore occupied as a laborer here in Tucson - born in El Paso, jurisdiction of New Mexico, in 1770 - parents Mariano Rodríguez and María Dolores Duran - religion Roman Catholic— height 5' 3" - light brown hair - dark eyes - ruddy complexion - black eyebrows mole on right cheek - pockmarked face - sparse beard enlisted voluntarily to serve for ten years with this company beginning today, November 13, 1800, and signed his name before the witnesses Felipe Palomino and Matias Cruz, soldiers of this company.

Tucson. November 13, 1800.
MARIANO RODRIGUEZ
MARIANO URREA

Notes:

For having gambled away his zarape, spurs, neckerchief, stockings, and leather armas32 at Arizpe, he was imprisoned here in Tucson for a month and forced to clean the barracks and plaza in leg irons, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of the Tucson presidio at the time.

For having sold his flintlock musket in Sinaloa he spent two months in leg irons in the Tucson guardhouse, sweeping the plaza and barracks for two hours in the morning and two hours in the afternoon, as attested to by Antonio Narbona, commander of Tucson at the time.

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He reenlisted for five years on December 1, 1815, as attested to by Lieutenant Manuel de León and the witnesses Sergeant José González and Corporal Carlos Martínez. He took the customary leave of two months.

In 1816 he took part in an Apache campaign that lasted from February 20 until April 26.

For a third time he gambled away his official equipment. To Juan Salazar, a fellow soldier, he lost his cloak, leather jacket, spurs, lance, and even his horse. I put him in leg irons, as prescribed in the royal orders of October 26, 1776, and June 3, 1777, for those who alienate presidial equipment. The governor of the province wrote me on March 29 of the current year and ruled that since Rodríguez had reenlisted since his two earlier offenses, this should be considered his first offense. So I set him free on April 7.

Tucson. December 31, 1817.
MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU33

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Desert Documentary by Kieran McCarty - Chapter 19
Tucson, Arizona: Arizona Historical Society, 1976.

© 1976 The Arizona Historical Society. All Rights Reserved.

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