SPANISH TUCSON'S LAST ROSTER

  The two documents translated and published in this section conclude the firsthand account of Spanish Arizona. The first is authored by one of Tucson's last Spanish commanders, Manuel Ignacio de Arvizu, and relates little-known facts concerning Spanish Arizona's involvement in the royalist defense against Miguel Hidalgo and his Insurgents in the fight for Mexican Independence. The second document is the last known roster of the Spanish presidio at Tucson. Arvizu's petition for promotion and the account of his military record have been shortened and edited for this publication. Much more is in the original since his military service, covering more than fifty years, was one of the longest and most colorful in the history of Spanish and Mexican Arizona. His story is included here because of his important role in the war for Mexican Independence, an unknown chapter in Arizona history. Scores of presidia! soldiers from Spanish Sonora took part in that war on the Royalist side. Some ten from Tucson and Tubac were still fighting Insurgents on the southern frontier of the province as late as 1818. The number was much higher during the earlier years of the rebellion.

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As during the Cerro Prieto rebellion of the previous century, the manpower of the northern presidios was drained by battles on a southern frontier, this time much farther south. Fortunately, the success of the Gálvez peace policy and the settlement of Apaches after 1786 made up in great part for the depletion of presidia! forces. The granting of Arvizu's petition was delayed by the confusion surrounding the transition to independence and by opposition from Alejo García Conde, commanding general of the northern provinces. García Conde and others felt that Arvizu was too much a warrior to change suddenly to a peaceful administrative post in civil government. They had good reason. His unenlightened government of Tucson's civilian settlers between 1813 and 1819 was an important turning point in the history of Spanish Arizona. Due to Arvizu's mismanagement, many settlers abandoned Tucson entirely during the years immediately preceding independence. Up to that point enterprising Tucsonans had even farmed the Tres Alamos site on the San Pedro River when Apache raids were reduced. Before Arvizu's tenure Tucsonans were producing between two and three thousand bushels of grain annually. During the first decade of independence, Tucson had to depend on the settlements of the San Ignacio River, far to the south, for a good part of its grain supply.

The answer to Arvizu's petition finally arrived in 1823, bringing him a promotion to the post of military commander of Chihuahua. He had received his full colonelcy two years before and had left Tucson to plead his cause in the centers of higher government before the roster published here was drawn up at the end of 1818. He was still listed as Tucson's legal commander as late as December of 1819.

Early in 1819 Captain José Romero had moved from Bacoachi, where Chiricahua Apaches were peacefully settled, to become the acting commander at Tucson. Romero's experience with the Chiricahuas gave him good training for the Tucson post, for it was he who finalized the treaty and engineered the settlement of 236 Pinal Apaches at Tucson in the late spring of 1819. The Pinals were closely related to the Aravaipas, who had been settled at Tucson since 1793, and the two groups mixed well together. Like the Aravaipas, the Pinals enjoyed an agricultural tradition, and a sedentary life along the Santa Cruz was made easier for

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them. As evident from the preceding military-award documents, Arvizu had disposed the Pinaleños for this move by unrelenting harassment and had even made preliminary treaties with them. Like Allande before him, he had left Tucson before the glory of the final treaty and settlement.

Arvizu returned to Tucson for a very short time in 1825 to replace Romero, engaged in his famed California expedition. Though Arvizu's appointment to Tucson was dated September 1, 1825, he probably arrived in October with José Figueroa, military commander of the State of the West, who was on his way to meet Romero at the Colorado. In the following month, both Arvizu and Figueroa were recalled to the south by the Yaqui rebellion of that year. During the Yaqui war, Arvizu was accused of desertion after forty-seven years of outstanding military service, but was acquitted by the national legislature on March 9, 1827. During 1829 he was in Arizpe as acting military commander of the State of the West. In December he wrote a short treatise, "Manual of Apache Warfare," the culmination of fifty years in the field. In 1832 at Arizpe death finally came for the old warrior when he was seventy.


Tucson.
April 12, 1818.

TO VICEROY JUAN RUIZ DE APODACA

Manuel Ignacio de Aruizu, brevet lieutenant-colonel and commander of this presidial company at Tucson on the frontier of Spanish Sonora, humbly presents the following petition before Your Excellency. He has had the honor of serving the king for some forty years, as will be seen in his service record accompanying this petition. During all of this extended time, he has borne arms with distinction and without interruption against native tribes hostile to His Majesty. Never once has he turned his back

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on danger. After the Yuma Massacre of 1781, he took part in the three punitive expeditions of 1781 under Pedro Fages, of 1782 under José Antonio Romeu, and of 1783 under Felipe de Neve. More recently he has distinguished himself in fighting the Insurgents along the coast of El Rosario. At the beginning of the year 1811, he fought in the memorable battle of Piaxtla against the self-styled general of the Insurgents, José María González Hermosillo. When he went out to rescue Captain José Laredo and his detachment, which had been surrounded by a force of six hundred Insurgents, he captured the entire artillery section of the Insurgent army with a force of only sixteen men. For this valiant action, he was awarded a personal coat-of-arms with the inscription: Cannons Are Useless in the Face of Valor. He commanded eight actions in all against these Insurgents with a total loss of 1300 enemy lives, pursuing them as far south as the Acaponeta River.

In light of all of these distinguished services, the present petitioner humbly requests promotion to a position of authority in civil government.

MANUEL IGNACIO DE ARVIZU

SERVICE RECORD

I was born in the year 1762 at the Royal Presidio of Santa Gertrudis del Altar. I began my service as a soldier on September 19, 1779. I received the title of distinguished soldier on June 1, 1786. On September 12, 1789, I began my career as a cadet. I was promoted to ensign on June 17, 1793: to lieutenant on December 30, 1805; to brevet captain on October 6, 1809; to brevet lieutenant-colonel on January 28, 1812; to commander of the Fourth Flying Company of Nueva Vizcaya on January 30, 1814; and to commander of this Tucson presidio on June 18, 8, 1816. In summary, I have served at the presidios of Altar, Santa Cruz, Tucson, and Bavispe; in the Fourth Flying

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Company in Nueva Vizcaya; and currently in this presidio of Tucson, where I exercise the office of military commander and civil administrator of this jurisdiction.

Tucson.
December 1, 1818.

ROSTER AND REVIEW OF THE ROYAL PRESIDIO OF SAN AGUSTIN DEL TUCSON, AS RECORDED BY MYSELF, JUAN ALEXO CARRILLO, FIRST ENSIGN OF THIS COMPANY, IN OBEDIENCE TO TITLE NINE OF THE ROYAL REGULATIONS FOR PRESIDIOS:

Manuel Ignacio Arvizu, commandant and brevet lieutenant colonel, on leave in Durango.

Manuel de León, lieutenant, on detachment to the Buenavista presidio.

Juan Alexo Carrillo, first ensign, present.

Antonio Comaduran, second ensign, present.

Fray Pedro Arriquibar, chaplain, present.

Bernardo Cruz, armorer, present.

Francisco Usárraga, drummer, present.

Salvador Gallegos, sergeant, present.

Loreto Ramírez, sergeant and paymaster, commanding the detachment bringing the company payroll.

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Vicente Rodríguez, sergeant, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Ignacio Marin, corporal, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Antonio Ramírez, corporal, on detachment to the regular army.

Leonardo León, corporal, distinguished award, on detachment to New Mexico.

Francisco Romero, corporal, distinguished award, present.

Pedro Ramírez, corporal, on guard duty.

Geronimo Herrán, corporal, distinguished award, present.

José Martínez, carbineer, present.

Manuel Orozco, carbineer, on detachment to New Mexico.

Manuel Rodríguez, carbineer, on detachment to New Mexico.

Francisco Gauna, carbineer, on duty with the pack train.

Francisco Amaya, carbineer, present.

José Ramírez, carbineer, in the hospital.

Francisco Villaescusa, cadet, in Pitic.

Miguel Burruel, soldier, on detachment to the regular army.

José Telles, soldier, present.

Bernardo Mesa, soldier, on detachment to the regular army

Juan María Castro, soldier, on detachment to the regular army.

Santos Sierra, soldier, on detachment to the regular army.

Francisco Pacheco, soldier, in Arizpe.

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Ildefonso Bojórques, soldier, on detachment to the regular army.

Juan Morales, soldier, on guard duty with the king's cattle.

Bautista Romero, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Pedro Granillo, soldier, on duty with the pack train.

Juan Martínez, soldier, present.

Juan Cisneros, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Juan Morales, soldier, on duty with the pack train.

Juan Romero, soldier, in the hospital.

Pedro Siqueiros, soldier, present.

José Gallegos, brevet sergeant, on detachment to New Mexico.

Ignacio Urias, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Manuel Hernandez, soldier, prisoner in Arizpe.

Cornelio Elías, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

José Romero, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Vicente Sosa, soldier. on detachment to New Mexico.

José Carrisosa, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Ramón Sortillón, soldier, in the detachment company payroll.

Juan Tisnado, soldier, in the guardhouse.

Fernando Ruelas, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

José Luque, soldier, in Durango.

Antonio Cuéllar, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

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Juan Morillo, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Juan Miranda, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Juan Salazar, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Julian Balder, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Ignacio León, soldier, prisoner in Arizpe.

Francisco Herrán, soldier, distinguished award, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Nepomuceno Duarte, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

José Rengel, soldier, on guard duty.

Juan León, soldier, on guard duty.

Juan Hurtado, soldier, in the detachment bringing the company payroll.

Juan Granillo, soldier, present.

José Siqueiros, soldier, in the detachment bringing the company payroll.

Saturnino Castro, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Juan Ledesma, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Julian Galaz, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Ramón Romero, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Pedro Vega, soldier, prisoner in Arizpe.

Roque Valenzuela, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

José Castillo, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Antonio Carrillo, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Ramón García, soldier, on duty with the pack train.

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Valentín Usárraga, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Alvino Ocoboa, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico. Ignacio Castelo, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Ignacio Romero, soldier, in Durango.

Eleuterio Luque, soldier, sick.

Narciso Ortega, soldier, in the hospital.

Luis Martínez, soldier, on guard duty.

José Solares, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Francisco Díaz, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Mariano Alegría, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Isidro Gallegos, soldier, present.

José Soto, soldier, on detachment to the regular army.

Conrado Herman, soldier, on guard duty with the com- pany horseherd.

Ignacio Barrios, soldier, on detachment to New Mexico.

Juan Gallardo, soldier, on guard duty.

Pablo Díaz, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Enrique Franco, soldier, sick.

Leocadio Ochoa, soldier, present.

Hilario Andrade, soldier, on detachment to the regular army.

Juan Barrios, soldier, present.

Rafael Grijalva, soldier, present.

Bautista Salazar, soldier, present.

Manuel Espinosa, soldier, present.

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José Salazar, soldier, in Durango.

Ignacio Moraga, soldier, present.

Zeferino Luque, soldier, present.

Antonio Crespo, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Francisco Castelo, soldier, on guard duty with the company horseherd.

Juan Noriega, soldier, present.

Juan Elías, soldier, on guard duty.

Rafael Corrales, soldier, present.

José León, soldier, present.

Total Active Personnel

        103

Retired

Pedro Vega, retired, present.

Francisco Romero, retired, present.

Antonio Gonzales, retired, present.

Marcos Castro, retired, present.

José Grijalva, retired, present.

Antonio Granillo, retired, present.

Francisco Polanco, retired, present.

Raimundo Ortega, retired, present.

Guillermo Saenz, retired, present.

Salvador Morales, retired, present.

Nepomuceno Corrales, retired, present.

Juan Martínez, retired, present.

José Vilducea, retired, present.

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Francisco Granillo, retired, present.

José Palomino, retired, present.

Pedro Cuéllar, retired, present.

Francisco Romero, retired, present.

Total Retired Personnel in Residence

      17

Note: Francisco Romero retired on November 16 and José Tisnado died on November 7. Therefore, they are not included on the list of active personnel.

Signed: JUAN ALEXO CARRILLO
ANTONIO COMADURAN34

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Desert Documentary by Kieran McCarty - Chapter 20
Tucson, Arizona: Arizona Historical Society, 1976.

© 1976 The Arizona Historical Society. All Rights Reserved.

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