CHAPTER II. EXPEDITIONS AGAINST INDIANS.


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Number of Whites Killed by Indians—Increase of Military—Number of Indians Killed and Captured by Military—King Woolsey's Account of Lieutenant McCleave's Scout—Fight at Harqua Hala Springs—Colonel Barnard's Fight with Apaches Under Cochise.

General Devin's report for 1868 shows that in the Northern District, in forty-six expeditions, one hundred and forty-six Indians had been killed, sixty-one wounded, and thirty-five captured. In the south little had been done during that time. Several new posts were established and much work was done at the forts. The force this year was two regiments of infantry, and nine of cavalry. In Pima County for the year ending July 17th, 1869, fifty-two whites were killed and eighteen wounded by Apaches. In the next year forty-seven were killed and six wounded, besides destruction of property in every part of the Territory. Hardly a freighter, stockman, or farmer, that did not suffer from Indian raids.

The “Prescott Miner,” of March 6th, 1869, contains the following item:

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“Indians continuing depredations around Prescott and all the adjacent towns, killing citizens and running off stock.”

’’

This paper, on the same date, notes the succession of General Ord in command of the Department


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of California, and says: ‘‘“The number of companies in Arizona is increased to thirty-six, which will be re-enforced by eight companies to be forwarded as soon as possible. The number of troops when the re-enforcements arrive, will be about eighteen hundred. The operation of the troops during the last quarter in Northern Arizona has been of considerable interest. The scouts of General Alexander, Colonel Price, Major Clendenin, and Lieutenants Hasson, Sommerbee and Wells, resulted in the capture of numerous Indians and the killing of sixty-four, and the destruction of the villages and property of several warlike parties of Indians who have been committing outrages and killing the settlers in the Territory. The war parties of Indians are mostly roving Apaches, some of them being from the hostile branch of the Hualapai tribe.”’’

In a letter dated from the Vulture Mine, July 12th, 1869, King Woolsey gives an account of the scout of Lieutenant Wm. McCleave of the 8th U. S. Cavalry, a description of which has been given in Volume 3 of this History as related by William Fourr. The following is King Woolsey's report:

‘‘

“On July 6th they arrived at Harqua Hala Springs. An Indian appeared on a high point overlooking our camp, waved his gun high in the air, and sounded the warwhoop, all of which was a signal of battle. Then opened one of the most terrific Indian fights I have ever had the pleasure of witnessing.

“After the first half hour it was plain that we could drive them at will, but the ‘old man,’


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as the boys called McCleave, thought it best to keep them close to us until we wanted to retire to the plain below. Our men fought Indian fashion, every man from behind a rock. Had they been exposed they would not have lasted ten minutes. At six o'clock orders were given to saddle and pack up. The Indians saw the move and rushed furiously to the charge. It was a dear charge for them, and during the few minutes it lasted, we hurt more Indians than we had in the previous two hours fighting. Numbers fell and were dragged back to the rocks, and three lay dead in full view. We had one man wounded severely in the head. We forced a passage to the plain below, and camped for the night. At daylight the cliffs at the entrance of the canyon and below the water were black with the red devils, apparently busily fortifying. Knowing that we were compelled to have water, they were using every exertion to prevent us from getting it. At eight o'clock A. M., after having grazed our horses and breakfasted, orders were given to pack, saddle, and fall in. After detailing a rear guard, and every fourth man to hold or lead horses, we only had thirteen soldiers and two citizens to face the enemy; this small band was drawn up in a line and, after a few stirring words from our General, we deployed on foot. The Apaches welcomed us with loud shouts, waving bright lances and guns in the morning sun. They had evidently been reinforced during the night and, being now well fortified, were eager for the contest. We marched directly toward the fortified hill until within five hundred yards of it. We


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diverged to the right, crossing the canyon and gaining the high ground on the north. This move was executed in full view of the enemy, who appeared to be completely stupefied. As soon as we faced about and bore down toward the water, they sullenly left their fort, hurried around, and crawled into the rocks overhanging the water. As they were shifting from the fortification, we had an opportunity of approximating their number, and I think that at least sixty left the hill and passed into the rocks, where also were others. Our train was halted within four hundred yards of the water, and we were ordered to advance. Our advance was a succession of charges or rushes from one cluster of rocks to another, one half of our force covering while the other half charged. In about one hour the water was cleared, and about one-half of our fighting force had crossed the canyon and occupied the rocks lately in possession of the savages.

“The train and horses were now ordered to the water. The Indians rallied and made a desperate attempt to regain their lost ground, but failed, losing one of their chiefs, quite a number of their warriors, and leaving us masters of the field. Thus ended two of the hardest contested Indian fights I have ever witnessed. I think they outnumbered us the last day at least five to one. The fighting was almost entirely done by the soldiers as, besides myself, there was but one citizen, William Fourr, in the fight. Our leader proved himself worthy the great reputation he bears. He was everywhere, and always at the right place.”

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On August 14th, 1869, General Devin transferred his headquarters to Tucson. The “Miner” of October 30th, 1869, prints a letter under date of October 13th, 1869, from Tucson, giving an account of Indian depredations in that locality, and especially one in which the band was headed by Cochise. The last paragraph of this letter is as follows:

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“Colonel Barnard has now two companies under his command, with orders to follow Cochise's trail by day and night, wherever it may lead.”

’’

In the “Miner” of December 12th, 1869, is the report of Colonel P. F. Barnard of his fight with the Apaches under Cochise:

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“On the 16th of October Colonel Barnard started from Camp Bowie with sixty-one men and fifteen days' rations, marching entirely by night, which rendered it difficult to follow the trail of the Indians. On the 20th he came upon a camp which appeared to have been deserted but a day or so, where he halted the command, not being able to see the trail. The Colonel galloped into a canyon, while the guide with five men climbed toward a rocky mesa. The Colonel, looking back to see how the men were getting up the hill, saw several Indians running for the crest. He got back as quick as his horse would carry him, and ordered his men to tie their horses to the trees and get to the tops of the hills as quickly as possible, leaving six men with the horses. Before the men had reached half way up the hill, the Indians had opened fire on the guide and the five men with him, compelling them to take shelter behind rocks. At this,


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firing commenced at all parts of the rocks above us. The troops were placed about thirty yards from the ledge occupied by the Indians, which enabled them to shoot arrows at any person who might show himself. Here two men were killed and one wounded. The men then made themselves secure behind the rocks, and the sharp-shooting commenced in earnest and was kept up for a half hour, when the Colonel gave the command of the troops occupying the rocks to Lieutenant Lafferty, while he disposed of the rear guard and pack train which was just coming in. When the Colonel reached the place where he had left the horses, he found that they were greatly exposed to the enemy's fire, and, it being impossible to advance, Lieutenant Lafferty was ordered to fall back and bring the dead with him, which he was unable to do. One man in coming down the hill, fell over the rocks and broke his leg. The animals were then removed to a place of safety, leaving the Lieutenant and a few men to protect the dead bodies until something could be done to drive the Indians from the rocks. The Colonel with twenty men moved to the left in hopes of being able to get in the rear of the enemy, but found every point on the mesa well guarded, and as he got within gunshot, they would open fire upon him. He then took thirty men and went to the right, determined to get to the top of the mesa if possible. This movement was made around a hill so that the Indians could not see him until he reached the place that he intended to charge from, where he found a deep canyon that he had to lead his horses down and up before reach


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ing the top of the mesa. He had not more than made his appearance here until they commenced firing upon him. He then gave his first sergeant fifteen men, with orders to occupy the hill nearest the mesa and try to make the Indians leave their stronghold near the dead men. This fire had great effect on them as several men were killed from this point. He again returned to the place where the animals were left and gave Captain Adams all the men he could spare, with orders to report to Lieutenant Lafferty to make a charge and get the bodies of the dead men. Just as Captain Adams arrived and was about to report to Lieutenant Lafferty, he, Lieutenant Lafferty, was shot, the ball taking effect in the cheek, breaking and carrying away the greater portion of the lower jaw, the bullet and broken bones greatly lacerating his face. Success was now made a loss, and there being no place where the command could camp in this vicinity out of gunshot range of the hill, besides which the whole country being thickly settled with timber, night appeared very dark, as it had been raining all day, the Colonel thought it best to withdraw and not lose more men in the vain attempt to dislodge the enemy, which could not have been done with twice the number of men. In his report the Colonel says: ‘The men all-fought well, and no men could have done better than they did. I feel certain that I could not have dislodged the Indians with a hundred and fifty men without losing at least one-half of them. The Indians were brave, but many of them must have been killed and wounded.’ He is returning to the place of action


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on the night of the 24th, with every man mounted. He says further: ‘The enlisted Indians you have sent me will be of great assistance to me in finding the camp at night, and, I hope, in a more accessible place. I will march altogether by night, when I can follow the trail. In contending with Cochise I do not think I exaggerate when I say that we are contending with one of the most intelligent hostile Indians on the continent.’

“Eighteen Indians are known to have been killed during the fight, and in Colonel Barnard's command two privates were killed, and Lieutenant Lafferty was wounded.”

’’

A. F. BANTA.

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